Population: 44.4 million inhabitants
Annual population growth: 2.7 %
Median age: 19 years
Urban population: 25.2 %
Infant mortality (under 5 years): 49.8 ‰
Gross Enrolment Ratio (secondary education): 33 %
Official(s) language(s): English, Swahili
National(s) language(s): Swahili
Other(s) language(s) spoken(s): Kibuyu, Luyia, Luo, Kalenjin, Kamba, Gusii, Meru
Religions: Christianity, Islam, animism
21-24 september, 2013: Attack of the shopping mall Westgate in Nairobi by an Islamist commando Somali Shebab (72 dead).
September 11, 2013: Discovery of underground reserves of fresh water in the Turkana region in the north of the country.
September 10, 2013: Opening in The Hague (Netherlands) to the International Criminal Courts (ICC) trial of the Kenyan Vice President William Ruto accused of crimes against humanity during the post-election violence in 2007.
August 7, 2013: Fire in the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi.
June 6, 2013: "The British government sincerely regrets that abuse [torture and ill-treatment] took place" during the Mau Mau uprising between 1952 and 1960 and announced a compensation agreement amicably with 5228 survivors.
March 4, 2013: Victory of Uhuru Kenyatta at the presidential election.
March 8, 2012: Dismissal of 25,000 nurses in the public sector on strike.
January 23, 2012: The ICC confirms charges against Uhuru Kenyatta, William Ruto, Joshua Arap Sang and Francis Muthaura involved in post-election violences of 2007-2008.
October 15, 2011: Start of the intervention of the Kenyan army in southern Somalia to create a buffer zone following the abduction of several tourists.
September 12, 2011: Explosion of a pipeline in a slum of Nairobi (120 deaths).
April 7, 2011: Complaint of four Kenyans against the British government for torture and ill-treatment during the colonial era, during the repression of the Mau Mau revolt in the years 1950-1960.
August 4, 2010: Adoption by referendum of a new constitution that removes the prime minister and strengthens the powers of the National Assembly.
July 9, 2009: Kofi Annan hands over ICC a list of names of suspects of murders committed during the post-election riots.
July 2009: Establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
October 15, 2008: The report of the Commission of Inquiry on Post Election Violence involves political and economic leaders of the country.
Aptril 13, 2008: Appointment of Raila Odinga as prime minister.
March 18, 2008: Adoption by the Parliament of a constitutional amendment creating the function of Prime Minister.
February 28, 2008: Signing of an agreement to share power between President Mwai Kibaki and opposition leader Raila Odinga.
February 1, 2008: Agreement between President Mwai Kibaki and opponent Raila Odinga to end violence in the next two weeks.
January 10, 2008: Appointment of former UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, as mediator.
January 2008: The riots spread to the rest of the country and become interethnic (1500 dead and over 300,000 displaced persons).
December 29, 2007: Beginning of the riots in the slums of Nairobi.
December 27, 2007: Re-election of Mwai Kibaki.
November 21, 2007: Victory of the "no" in the referendum on the revision of the Basic Law.
December 10, 2004: Wangari Muta Maathai received the Nobel Peace Prize.
December 27, 2002: Victory Mwai Kibaki in the presidential election.
March 7, 1999: Ethnic clashes in the north of the country.
August 7, 1998: Attack in Nairobi against the Embassy of the United States, claimed by the "Islamic Army for the Liberation of Muslim holy places" (224 deaths).
January 1, 1998: New ethnic violence in the Rift Valley, northwest of the country (65 deaths).
December 29, 1997: Victory of Daniel Arap Moi in the presidential election (5th term).
November 26, 1997: Legal recognition of several opposition parties.
7-15 July 1997: New student demonstrations demanding more democracy (16 deaths).
February 23, 1997: Riots during a student demonstration.
January 29, 1996: Creation of the National Alliance grouping the four main opposition parties.
January 21, 1994: Death of Oginga Odinga.
December 29, 1992: Victory of Daniel Arap Moi in the presidential election (4th term).
March – May 1992: Tribal Clashes in western countries (2000 deaths).
December 10, 1991: Ratification of the law restoring the multiparty system.
August 2, 1991: Creation, by opponents of the regime, of the Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD).
February 13, 1991: Creation, by Oginga Odinga, of a party, the National Democratic Party (NDP).
July 1990: Demonstrations in favor of multiparty.
February 29, 1988: Victory of Daniel Arap Moi in the presidential election (3rd term).
10-14 February 1984: Massacres of members Degodia tribe in north-east (300 dead and 1000 missing).
August 29, 1983: Re-election of Daniel Arap Moi.
August 1, 1982: Attempted "coup d'état" by members of the air force headed by Hezekiah Ochuka.
June 9, 1982: Amendment of the Constitution establishing the single party.
August 22, 1978: Death of President Jomo Kenyatta. Daniel Arap Moi succeeded him.
January 22, 1976: Creation of the Kenya Airways.
October 14, 1974: Victory of Jomo Kenyatta's presidential election (3rd term).
July 12, 1974: Swahili is declared official language.
November 22, 1969: Re-election of Jomo Kenyatta.
October 30, 1969: Banning the party of Oginga Odinga, the Kenya People's Union (KPU).
July 5, 1969: Assassination of Minister Tom Mboya.
December 12, 1964: Proclamation of the Republic. Jomo Kenyatta becomes president.
December 12, 1963: Proclamation of Independence.
Population: 3138295 inhabitants. (2009)
Density: 4509 inhabitants per km2.
Nairobi is the biggest city in Kenya and one of the biggest cities in Africa.
In 1950, however, Nairobi population was 87 000 inhabitants only. In 2015, it is expected that Nairobi reaches about 4 million inhabitants. The population growth in Nairobi has long been due to rural exodus, but today, the natural population growth is the main driver. Unfortunately, most of the urban population increasing rapidly not find adequate housing, due first of all massiveness of this urbanization, and partly due to the fact that, in general, countries meeting this urbanization are among the least prepared and least able to absorb the growing urban population. This therefore results in the uncontrolled development of informal housing areas, otherwise known as slums.
Unemployment is a major problem in Nairobi. This situation leads to poverty, as in Kenya in general: 42% of the country's population lives below the poverty line and 23% of the population lives on less than US $ 1 a day.
Its elevation ranges from 1 600-1 850 meters above the level of the sea.
Its climate is generally tropical climate but tempered by elevation, with cool mornings can be cold during rainy seasons. These take place between April and June, on the one hand, and in November and December, on the other.
Nairobi, as city, owes its existence to the railway company Kenya Uganda Railway, linking Uganda and Kenya. The line reached Nairobi in 1899 and the chief engineer, Sir George Whitehouse took the decision to move the company headquarters from Mombasa to Nairobi. This decision made, quickly, Nairobi as commercial and business node of the protectorate of British East Africa of time. It was completely rebuilt in the early 1900s after the arrival of the plague and a great fire.
Nairobi became the capital of British East Africa in 1905 then the colony and protectorate of Kenya in 1920, the Commonwealth realm of Kenya in 1963 and, finally, the Republic of Kenya in 1964.
The Mukuru slum (translation: the tipping) is located south of Nairobi, 10 km from the center. It started to develop there about 35 years.
Il comporte 20 « villages », quartiers selon les ethnies.
La population est estimée entre 400 000 et 600 000 habitants (difficulté à connaître le nombre exact d’habitants faute d’état civil) sur une superficie de 2,3 km².
Suite de masures en tôle ondulée, parfois peintes. Entrelacés de ruelles où l'on passe à peine, traversées par de l'eau croupie dans laquelle jouent de tous petits aux yeux ronds.